Solid Water and Bolus Material

Solid Water and Bolus Material

Bart’s Solid Water for Electrons and Photons

The Bart’s Solid Water was originally developed by David White and has undergone continual improvements with new production facilities now in place at Bart’s Health NHS Trust.

We are able to offer customised sizes from 1mm thick upwards with user specified thicknesses e.g. 41mm. We also offer various sizes 20 X 20, 25 x 25, 30 X 30, 35 X 35 cm etc.

The Bart’s Solid Water mimics the absorption characteristics of water over a wide range of energies. Radiation beam calibration is made simpler when using Solid Water. It is designed to scatter and attenuate radiation in the same way as water and can be easily machined to accommodate custom chambers and detectors.

We also precision machine cavities in slabs of 2.0cm thickness or greater to accommodate most commercially available ion chambers/detectors.

A cut out for the PTW Roos chamber can be included with a plug to enable simple removal of the chamber obviating any damage.

Tissue Equivalent Material

Elemental composition, physical density , CT number (Hounsfield)

Elemental composition (%) Density
CT number
Material H C N O Cl Sa
Water Equivalent WT1 8.41 67.97 2.27 18.87 0.13 2.35 1.00 0
Water Equivalent Wte 7.39 61.99 2.01 22.18 0.11 6.32 1.04 80
Tol 0.5% Tol +/- 10

Benefits & Features

  • Solid Water allows for calibrations within 1% of the true water dose
  • Useful in relative ionisation calibration, depth dose measurements and absolute calibrations
  • Readily machined for custom sizes
  • Bart’s was the original Solid Water and reference information is available in many scientific publications
  • Electron and Photon Stopping power relative to water of 1.030+/- 0.005 for Photon energies from 100kV to 24MV
  • Wide range of sizes and dimensions
  • Mouldable material for custom requests
  • Rigid construction eliminates broken ion chambers
  • Wide range of applications and uses
  • Dedicated Solid Water (WTE) for Electrons available
  • New proton Solid Water available shortly

Bolus Bag Cleaning Instructions

Chlorine based cleaners can damage the bag material (plantilon) and should be removed immediately after use using warm soapy water.  Alternatively we recommend Clinell Alco Wipes to clean the bags.

Bart's Solid Water for Electrons and Photons
Bart's Solid Water for Electrons and Photons
Bart's Solid Water for Electrons and Photons
Bart's Solid Water for Electrons and Photons
Bart's Solid Water for Electrons and Photons

Bolus and Tissue Equivalent Materials

In addition to specialised WTE and WT1 Solid Water equivalent materials for Electrons and Photons, we now offer other types of mimicking materials; these include Adipose, Breast, Bone, Lung etc.

These materials are available in the same standard sizes as the Solid Water but can also be purchased to user defined shapes for phantoms and test blocks.

Bolus and Tissue Equivalent Materials

Bart‘s Bolus Bags offer soft comfortable muscle or water substitute material for use in Megavoltage Radiotherapy.

The bags are supplied in standard sizes and are manufactured from highly elastic film offering excellent durability, further information is available on our Bolus data sheet which can be downloaded from our website.

A list of the specialised tissue equivalent materials are listed below, these can be purchased to user specified shapes and sizes.

Electron Density relative to water
Adipose (Fat) Tissue AP-7 0.90
Breast Tissue BR-12 0.96
Hard Cortical Bone SB-5 1.47
Inner Bone IB-7 1.11
Average Rib Bone RB-2 1.50
Lung Tissue LN-10 0.28
Liver LV-1 1.05

Please contact our Sales Office for further information on any of these products.

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